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Career Opportunities in Journalism

Today, youngsters are fast influenced and lured by the ample growth and rewarding opportunities in media. There are job opportunities in media such as researchers, media planner, media designer, technician, editor, producer, journalist etc.

This is true that career in media is a challenging job but it is one of the most versatile fields in the market. Today, media is very powerful medium to connect with millions of people in India and around the world. India has seen ample growth in this sector and according to market analysis and research, media industry in India has projected size of 7.7 US billion dollars and it is likely to go up by 18 billion US dollars by 2012. The Indian film industry is one of the biggest and fastest growing film industries which produce around 1000 films per year, the largest output of a media industry in the world.
There are innumerable lucrative and highly paid jobs in various media channels. TV, Radio, cinema, print media and web world are the important streams of media. Thousands of people turn to these mediums of communication for latest updates and news. Media plays a crucial role in spreading information about any current happening in the region and around the world. Earlier the role of media was only limited to newspapers and magazines but with the arrival of TV, radio and Internet the media industry is completely transformed into a bigger world. Internet is the latest development here, where you could find dozens of entertainment websites which include music, film news and gossips, blogs etc.

Today, youngsters are also fast influenced and lured by the ample growth and rewarding opportunities in media. There are vast job opportunities in media such as researchers, media planner, media designer, technician, editor, producer, journalist etc. You could choose any stream of media or mass communication for your career prospects.
People, who are good at writing and have an outstanding communication skill, can go for journalism. Career in journalism is full of lucrative career options and many challenges. With the arrival of so many news channels, journalists get ample growth and well paid remunerations. You may also work with the leading Hindi or English newspaper of your city.
Radio also offers great career prospects and opportunities. You could become a radio jockey in FM radio or national radio channels. It is a well paid job where you to need to entertain people by talking or listening to them on air.
You may opt for a graduate or post graduate degree or diploma in media (mass communication) courses. You should be specific about which course of line you would like to opt for your career, as media covers wide range of courses. To get into print and electronic media, a degree in journalism is compulsory. To be successful in this profession, the role of your college is very imperative, besides your inner capabilities and potentials.

With the privatization and advent of online media, media world has gone through a complete makeover. It is not limited to just one field; and individual who has great visionary and technical knowledge can make a turning point in his career.

Journalism in India has a very vital role to play. India is the world’s biggest democracy and free and vibrant press is an essential organ of any democracy. Career in Journalism can be broadly divided in three categories:

“Our job is to hold up the mirror. In seeking truth, you’ve got to get both sides of the story” – Walter Cronkite

Brief Introduction Media industry:

Digital TV is currently the main topic of technical discussion in the field of consumer electronics. A lot of work has been carried out in all the fields of consumer applications that have been recently affected by digital techniques; such process has been called “digitalization” or “digital revolution” in newspapers and magazines, describing the advantages of digital techniques over analog existing ones. To support this process, relevant results have been obtained in video compression techniques and standards (MPEG), audio and video processing, video recording, format conversion, etc. Moreover, traditional techniques of the information theory have been well exploited, both from the algorithmic point of view and from the architectural hardware implementation. The key point of the introduction of digital techniques in consumer electronics is that digital data are just made of a suitable combination of binary information (0, 1). Therefore, powerful methods are now needed to protect digital data from errors during storage, transmission and processing (channel coding and forward error correction). To take advantage of this revolution, most of the European consumer electronics companies and research centers have placed a huge effort trying to meet both the continuously increasing user requirements and the flexibility and programmability issues. The problem is to choose the best solution for an acceptable tradeoff in the short term as well as in the long one. Particular stress was put on the exploitation of an efficient technique for channel coding and modulation for all the three main transmission media, i.e. terrestrial, cable and satellite.      

History:

Media of India consist of several different types of Indian communications media: television, radio, cinema, newspapers, magazines, and Internet-based Web sites. Many of the media are controlled by large, for-profit corporations which reap revenue from advertising, subscriptions, and sale of copyrighted material. India also has a strong music and film industry. India has more than 70,000 newspapers and over 1600 satellite channels (more than 400 are news channels) and is the biggest newspaper market in the world – over 100 million copies sold each day.

The first Indian media were established in the late 18th century with the newspaper Hicky’s Bengal Gazette, founded in 1780. Auguste and Louis Lumière moving pictures were screened in Bombay during July 1895; and radio broadcasting began in 1927.Indian media—private media in particular—have been “free and independent” throughout most of their history. The period of emergency (1975–1977), declared by Prime Minister Indira Gandhi, was the brief period when India’s media were faced with potential government retribution.

The traditional print media, but also the television media, are largely family-owned and often partake in self-censorship, primarily due to political ties by the owner and the establishment. However, the new media are generally more professional and corporate-owned, though these, too, have been acquired or affiliated with established figures. At the same time, the Indian media, viewed as “feisty,” have also not reported on issues of the media itself.

    Broadcasting:

Radio broadcasting was initiated in 1927 but became a state responsibility only in 1930. In 1937 it was given the name All India Radio and since 1957 it has been called Akashvani. Limited duration of television programming began in 1959, and complete broadcasting followed in 1965. The Ministry of Information and Broadcasting owned and maintained the audio-visual apparatus—including the television channel Doordarshan—in the country prior to the economic reforms of 1991. The Government of India played a significant role in using the audio-visual media for increasing mass education in India’s rural swathes. Projected television screens provided engaging education in India’s villages by the 1990s. In 1997, an autonomous body was established in the name of Prasar Bharti to take care of the public service broadcasting under the Prasar Bharti Act. All India Radio and Doordarshan, which earlier were working as media units under the Ministry of I&B became constituents of the body.

Following the economic reforms satellite television channels from around the world—including BBC, CNN, CNBC, and other foreign television channels gained a foothold in the country. 47 million household with television sets emerged in 1993, which was also the year when Rupert Murdoch entered the Indian market. Satellite and cable television soon gained a foothold.. Doordarshan, in turn, initiated reforms and modernisation..With 1,400 television stations as of 2009, the country ranks 4th in the list of countries by number of television broadcast stations..

On 16 November 2006, the Government of India released the community radio policy which allowed agricultural centers, educational institutions and civil society organisations to apply for community based FM broadcasting licence. Community Radio is allowed 100 Watt Effective Radiated Power (ERP) with a maximum tower height of 30 metres. The licence is valid for five years and one organisation can only get one licence, which is non-transferable and to be used for community development purposes.

MEDIA: A UNIQUE INDUSTRY:

Based on its market structure and operational behaviours, Media is called a unique industry. There are various criterion and characteristics of media which help it earn the tag of being unique. The same are discussed in the following paragraphs. Most of the products and services world-wide are created following similar principals. The seller adds various costs incurred during the production of any product. This includes fixed costs like infrastructure, machinery, labour charges etc and variable costs like price of raw material, production, distribution, marketing and advertisement of per unit of the product. To this the margin of profit is added and a price tag is labelled against the product. Any consumer who wants to have the product or service needs to pay for the entire price and avail it. Media however works differently. It is the only industry in which user does not pay for the entire cost and profit of the product. Thus, media is the only industry which operates and competes in two different markets for generating its revenue. Because of this special characteristic, media economist and author Robert Picard described media as “Dual Product Market.”

The second market where media companies compete is that of advertisements. Advertisements are the principal earners for media companies and in television, especially in TV news, many a times the sole earners as well. This is because, for news channels, earning revenue through subscription is still a very complicated one. (more about that in the chapter on revenue streams). Advertisers on the other hand use the media platform and their content to reach out to their target audience (TG) or potential buyers. Their interest is not in the content being shown but in the demographic and psychographic profiles of the audience watching the content. Every media company competes with others both in the audience market and that of the advertisers. These two markets, of course, are not completely isolated from each other. They rather share a lot of mutual dependence. The more is a media firm’s audience share, the more advertisers will be interested in advertising through it. Also, the firm can demand more price for every unit of space or time slot it sell for advertisements.

The Rise of Online NEWS Video Channel

In the recent years demand for online news channels increased beyond its expectation due to many factors like reduction in data plans, introduction of high speed internet (4G) in India.

Smart phones and tablets with high-definition screens have enabled consumers to watch videos anywhere, while on-board cameras, apps, and simple editing software have lowered barriers to entry for content creation. at the same time, bandwidth has become cheaper and more plentiful with the cost of mobile data plans falling in our country. Over the last year in particular, social networks like twitter and Facebook have embraced these trends with news feeds filling up with videos, enabling extraordinary levels of intentional and accidental exposure to these new native formats. Facebook’s video consumption has increased by 75% in the past year, reaching 9 billion daily video views; over 1.5 million small businesses posted a video (or a video ad) on Facebook in September 2016.

These developments coincide with the first fall in tv news viewership after decades of continuous growth, a fall in viewership of television news bulletins has been documented, especially among the young but also in the population as a whole. The increasing trend to watch online news channels means that the video-enabled internet is now often the first port of call for big breaking news.

      Demand in India :-

The volume of wireless broadband data consumed by Indians has risen sharply, from less than 200 million gigabytes (GB) a month in 2016, to around 1.3 billion GB a month in 2017, according to the Internet Trends 2017 report.

While the global Internet users growth rate remained flat at 10%, Internet user numbers in India grew more than 28% to 355 million users until mid-2016. Internet Penetration stands at 27%, suggesting there is room for significant growth ahead.

Eighty per cent of all web traffic in India emanates from the mobile, a proportion that is the second highest in the world. Indians also spend 28 hours a week on the mobile, compared with four hours on TV and two hours reading print publications and books. Of the time spent on the mobile, 45% is on news & entertainment, 34% on search, social media and messaging, and 4% on shopping.

So the demand for online news channel is increasing day by day & promoter identified this opportunity well in time to capture it effectively.

       Carrier in Journalism:

Journalism is concerned with collection and dissemination of news through the print media as well as the electronic media. This involves various areas of works like reporting, writing, editing, photographing, broadcasting or cable casting news items. Journalism is classified into two on the basis of media- (i) Print Journalism and (ii) Electronic (Audio/Visual) Journalism. Print Journalism includes newspapers, magazines and journals. In print journalism one can work as editors, reporters, columnists, correspondents etc. Electronic journalism includes working for Radio, Television and the Web. In the web, skilled people are required to maintain sites by web newspapers (which cater only to the web and do not have print editions) and popular newspapers and magazines who have their own web editions. In electronic journalism one can be a reporter, writer, editor, researcher, correspondent and anchor. Career in journalism is a prestigious profession as well as a highly paid one. Journalist play a major role in the development of nation. It is through them that we get information about daily happenings in the society. The purpose of journalism itself is to inform and interpret, educate and enlighten the people. The opportunities for journalists are endless and at the same time the job has become more challenging, as the new world is proving the adage that “the pen (and the camera) is mightier than the sword.” Simple reporting of events is no more sufficient, more specialisation and professionalism in reporting is required. Journalists specialize in diverse areas, such as politics, finance and economics, investigation, culture and sports for newspapers and periodicals.

The promoter is planning to open a media training Institute to train the workforce to work in other media houses along with in house for the promoter project. There is also ample opportunity in this field for promoter due to highly interest of young generation in media field.

News Paper (Print Media):

Print media is growing in India in recent years also despite increase in online media industry. Two major reasons for the growth of print include low pricing and the fact that newspapers are easily accessible and available at home. India is among those very few countries where there is easy distribution; the newspapers are delivered at the doorstep. The competitive pricing of newspapers is also the cheapest in the world. A third reason is the impact of education. As India becomes more educated, the readership and hence circulation is only going to grow further. Still today, among the people who can read and those who actually read a newspaper, there is a gap of about 50 per cent, which shows us the growth opportunity in this field.

The proposed project is also for starting a weekly newspaper by promoter for readers of Himachal Pradesh.

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